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12th Grade Courses

Mathematics
 
Language Arts
 
 
Social Studies
 
 
Science
 
Health and PE
 
Humanities
 

Mathematics 

Recommended Course  
Course: Algebra 2
Grades: 9,10,11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: Algebra 1
Algebra 2 is a continuation of the topics of Algebra 1. The main concept covered is functions, including linear, quadratic, radical, rational, exponential and logarithmic, as well as their transformations. Counting principles, probability, and sequences and series are also presented during the course. Graphing calculators are used throughout the course as a tool to help provide a better understanding of the concepts. 
 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: Geometry
Grades: 9,10,11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: Algebra 1
Geometry emphasizes skills necessary for problem-solving and continued growth in mathematics through the use of geometric terms and processes, logic and problem solving. Topics covered include properties, congruence and similarity of triangles, area and perimeter of polygons, properties of circles and coordinate geometry. Methods of completing proofs is also presented. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Algebra 3
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: Algebra 2
Algebra 3 expands upon Algebra 2 concepts. Topics include the study of quadratic, polynomial, rational and radical functions, as well as non-linear systems and operations with matrices. Graphing calculators are used throughout the course as a tool to help provide a better understanding of the concepts. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Trigonometry
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: Algebra 2
Trigonometric topics include right triangles, the unit circle, vectors and the application of the six trigonometric identities in functions and equations. Scientific/graphing calculators are integrated throughout the course. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Pre-Calculus
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: Algebra 2
Pre-Calculus provides students with the foundation needed for further studies in calculus. Topics include limits and continuity, exponential and logarithmic properties, equations of conic sections, using matrices to solve systems, limits of sequences and series, and an in-depth look into frequency distributions. Graphs of various functions, including polar, are also studied. Graphing calculators are used throughout the course as a tool to help provide a better understanding of the concepts. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Business Math
Grades: 10,11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: Algebra I
This course covers the various aspects of consumer-oriented business practices, which include keeping financial records; figuring pay rates, benefits and commissions; understanding metric measures; and borrowing, saving and investing money. Practice problems in the course promote proficiency in dealing with everyday mathematical situations. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Probability & Statistics
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: Algebra I
This course is geared toward students who have at least completed Algebra I. This course introduces students to the basic concepts and logic of statistical reasoning and probability. Topics covered include Data Collections and Displays, Linear Relationships, Distributions, Representations of Data Sets, Central Tendency and Dispersion, Probabilities of Simple Events, Probabilities of Dependent/Independent Events. 
 

Elective Course  
Course: Keystone Algebra
Grades: 9,10,11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: Below Basic or Basic on Keystone Algebra Exam
Keystone Algebra is specifically designed for students to advance their mastery of the state standards for mathematics. The course gives an in-depth look at many of the topics covered in Algebra 1. 

 

Language Arts

Recommended Course  
Course: English I
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
English I students study literature, reading comprehension, vocabulary, essay development, research, functional text, and communication. Through the study of novels, short stories, poetry, drama, and nonfiction, students analyze literary elements and devices, text structure, author’s purpose, and historical significance. Students develop strategies for reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition through explicit instruction, teacher models, and think-alouds. Students write a variety of multi-paragraph essays with emphasis on the writing process. Grammar instruction is integrated within writing activities. Students study the research process and complete a research paper. Students study a variety of communication strategies and applications. 
 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: English II 
Grades: 10, 11, 12 
Credits: 1.0 
Prerequisite: English I
English II students study literature, reading comprehension, vocabulary, essay development, research, functional text, and communication. Through the study of novels, short stories, poetry drama, and nonfiction, students analyze literary elements and devices, text structure, author’s purpose, and historical significance. Students develop strategies for reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition through explicit instruction, teacher models, and think-alouds. Students write a variety of multi-paragraph essays with emphasis on the writing process. Grammar instruction is integrated within writing activities. Students study the research process and complete a research paper. Students study a variety of communication strategies and applications. 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: English III 
Grades: 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: English II
English III students study literature, reading comprehension, vocabulary, essay development, functional text, and research. Through the study of American literature covering the periods from 1400-present, students analyze literary elements and devices, text structure, author’s purpose, and historical significance. Students develop strategies for reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition through explicit instruction, teacher models, and think-alouds. Grammar instruction is integrated within writing activities. Students study the research process.
 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: English IV
Grades: 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: English III
English IV students study literature, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and functional text. Through the study of British literature covering the periods form 449-present, students analyze literary elements and devices, text structure, author’s purpose, and historical significance. Students develop strategies for reading comprehension and vocabulary acquisition through explicit instruction, teacher models, and think-alouds and apply these strategies to complex texts. Students write a variety of essays with an emphasis on responding to literature through analysis and synthesis.
 
 
 Elective Course  
Course: Literature of Early America
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: Passed last English class
This course is a survey of some well-known and more obscure literature of the early American period, roughly 1607-1790. We will begin with accounts of colonial settlement in Captain John Smith’s “A Description of New England” and end with John Woolman’s journal essays on social reform and the abolition of slavery in the newly emancipated United States. Get inside the minds of America’s earliest settlers and most influential thinkers, and rediscover our American heritage. 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Keystone Literature
Grades: 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: Below Basic or Basic on Keystone Literature Exam
This one-semester, half-credit course provides remediation as preparation for retaking the Keystone Literature Exam for those students who scored "basic" or "below basic" on their most recent attempt on the exam. The curriculum includes review of Keystone Literature vocabulary terms; Tier 3 vocabulary; comprehension, analysis, and interpretation of literary fiction and non- fiction; analysis of informational texts; and open-ended writing practice. The course utilizes a variety of texts and teacher- generated resources, as well as practice and assessment in Study Island.

 

Social Studies

Recommended Course  
Courses: Contemporary Social Issues A & B
Grades: 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
This course encourages critical thought and discussion on contemporary issues. It will provide students an opportunity to identify and evaluate political, cultural, and economic issues on a local, state, national, and international level. A variety of current news media are used to help students learn how contemporary social issues affect them and an emphasis is placed on their role as constructive citizens in an interdependent world. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: World Geography
Grades: 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
World Geography students study people places and environments with local, regional, national, and international perspectives. Students will understand influence of geography on the present and past. The course includes study of the physical processes that shape patterns in the physical environment; the characteristics and interrelationships of climates, major land forms, and ecosystems; the political, economic, and social processes that shape regions; types of settlement; the distribution and dispersion of world population; relationships between people, places and environments; and the idea of region. Students will analyze how location affects economic activities in different economic systems. Throughout the world. Students will identify the processes that influence political division s and analyze how different points of view affect public policy priorities. Students will analyze the effects of technology and human modifications on the physical environment. 
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Economics
Grades: 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
In this course both economics (the study of the behavior of individuals and institutions engaged in the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services) and personal finance (the principles and methods individuals use to acquire and manage income and assets) will be explored. Students will learn basic principles of production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services in the United States and compare them with those in other countries. Students will learn the rights and responsibilities of consumers and businesses. Students will understand the relationship between supply, demand, and price and study the role of financial institutions in a free enterprise system. Students will learn the types of business ownership and understand market structures. Personal finance and money management will be examined throughout the course with a focus on real world skills. 
 

 
 
Elective Course  
Course: General Social Studies
Grades: 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
This course provides students with an opportunity to explore the interconnection between the social sciences. Students will explore history, geography, civics and economics with a focus on mastering the main ideas and themes presented in each of these areas. 

 

Science

Recommended Course  
Course: Earth Science
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
This course is designed as a two semester, third or fourth year course in high school. Both Geology and Astronomy topics are presented, building on earlier science competencies that students have gained. Topics from the history of the universe and the Earth to modern topics are presented. Additional topics from Oceanography and Atmospheric Science are included as well. Approximately 150 hours of seat time are required to complete the course. 
 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: Biology
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
This course is designed as a two semester, first or second year course in high school. Biology topics include Biochemistry, The Cell, Genetics, Natural Selection, The History of Life, Viruses and Bacteria, Protists, Plants, Animals, The Human Body, Ecosystems, and Environmental topics. Approximately 150 hours of seat time are required to complete the course. 
 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: General Science
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
This is a full year course designed to summarize what students have learned in their other science courses. Some of the topics covered throughout the course include the methods for scientific measurement, the structure and function of cells, the construction of the universe, and the ecological interaction of ecosystems. This course is a great way to pull everything in science together. Some labs and projects will be required. 
 

 
Recommended Course  
Course: Physical Science
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
This course is designed as a two semester, first or second year course in high school. Introductory Chemistry topics include Matter, The Periodic Table, Chemical Reactions, and Acids and Bases. Introductory Physics topics include Motion, Energy, Waves, Electricity, and Magnetism. Approximately 150 hours of seat time are required to complete the course. 
 

 
 
Elective Course 
Course: Chemistry
Grades: 10, 11, 12
Credits:  1.0
Prerequisite: 80% in Algebra 1
This course is designed as a two semester, second or third year course in high school. Chemistry topics include Matter, The Periodic Table, Chemical Reactions, Solution Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, and Nuclear Chemistry. Approximately 150 hours of seat time are required to complete the course. 
 
 
Elective Course  
Course: Anatomy
Grades: 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
This one semester course centers on the function and organization of living organisms. Students will explore the body systems such as cardiovascular, muscular, skeletal, and digestive. In addition, students will look more closely at the cells of each of these systems and compare their functions and structures. This is a great follow-up course for students who have completed biology. Some labs and projects will be required.
 

 
Elective Course  
Course: Conservation of Resources
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
Students will learn about our natural resources and how they contribute to our lives. Some resources, such as air, are renewable and, with proper management, will never be exhausted. Other resources, such as coal, are limited. We have to plan how to use them intelligently and plan for an era when they no longer will be available. This course will help students make wise decisions about resources and investigate related careers in their field.
 

 Elective Course 
Course: Marine Biology
Grades: 11, 12
Credits:  0.5
Prerequisite: None
About 70% of the Earth is covered by water. Even today, much of the world's oceans remain unexplored. Marine scientists make new discoveries about aquatic life every day. Marine Biology is a one-semester course in which students will learn about the vast network of life that exists beneath the ocean's surface, from tiny plankton to great white sharks and giant sperm whales. Students will also find out more about the impact that humans have on the oceans, and how everyone can play a role in protecting the many organisms that live in the vast oceans of Earth. 
 

 
Elective Course 
Course: Paleontology
Grades: 11, 12
Credits:  0.5
Prerequisite: None
Who hasn't been fascinated at some point by dinosaurs? Odyssey High School Paleontology is a one-semester course in which students will learn about the creatures both large and small that roamed the Earth before humans. Find out what researchers think might have happened to these incredible beasts, and how the field of paleontology continues to provide amazing insight into early life on Earth. 
 

 
Elective Course 
Course: Space Exploration
Grades: 11, 12
Credits:  0.5
Prerequisite: None
In 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to go into space. In 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to step on the Moon. More than four decades later, a manned space station orbits the Earth, but humans have yet to reach beyond the Moon. Odyssey High School Space Exploration is a one-semester course that will discuss the history and future of space travel. Find out how we have sent people into space in the past, and what it will take for us to reach new frontiers in the stars! 
 

 
Elective Course 
Course: Keystone Biology
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits:  0.5
Prerequisite: Below Basic or Basic on Keystone Biology Exam
This course revisits concepts introduced in the full-year biology course. Students who enroll in this course will have additional practice and remediation of scientific topics, focusing on improving their scores on the Keystone Biology exam. Topics covered include the scientific method, cell, cell processes, genetics, evolution, and ecology. 

 

Health and PE

Recommended Course
Course: Health I
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
Health I is a one semester, three-unit course designed to explore health and wellness, looking at the different types of health and all of the influences on healthy decisions. Students will investigate life skills, communication skills, decision-making strategies. Additional topics will include adolescence, mental & emotional health, and physical health topics such as nutrition, body image, metabolism, and fitness. Finally, students will learn about methods to minimize health risks in the environment, prevent injuries, and when to visit a health care provider. 
 

 
Recommended Course
Course: P.E. Online
Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
This is a one semester, four-unit course designed to provide students with the basic skills and information needed to begin a personalized exercise program and maintain an active and healthy lifestyle. In this course, students will participate in fitness pre and post assessments in which they will measure and analyze their levels of fitness based on the five components of physical fitness: muscular strength, endurance, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and body composition. Students will also learn more about the benefits of physical activity, as well as the exercise techniques and guidelines that will keep them safe and healthy. 
 

Elective Course
Course: Wellness
Grades: 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
Wellness is a one semester course designed to explore teen components of healthful living. Students will receive iPads with pre-installed Apps that will monitor their wellness levels as it relates to physical health (PE, Health-based content) and environmental health (Health, Science-based content). Students will explore ways they can maintain or improve upon their current level of fitness, healthy diet, and environmental awareness and safety. 
 

 
Elective Course
Course: Health II
Grades: 11, 12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
Health II is a one semester, three-unit course designed to continue the exploration of health and wellness, looking at the different types of health concerns teenager and young adult face. Students will explore topics such as tobacco, alcohol, illegal drug use, as well as appropriate use for medicine and prescription drugs. Other topics will include communicable & non- communicable diseases, physical injuries, and prevention methods. Finally, students will study family dynamics, life changing events, healthy relationships, sexual health, reproduction, fetal development, life staging, and the aging process. 

Humanities

Recommended Course
Course: Art Appreciation
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
An introduction to the elements of architecture, painting and sculpture; the principles of the fine and applied arts are considered for their immediate relevance to contemporary life; through various media and through classroom experiences, the student develops his/her awareness of the sensitivity to all forms of art.
 

Recommended Course
Course: Music Appreciation
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 0.5
Prerequisite: None
An introduction to Western music including the elements of music, various musical styles, medias and forms, stylistic periods, and significant composers. 
 

Recommended Course
Course: Spanish I
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: None
Spanish I is an introductory course structured around the four key language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Extensive use of authentic materials along with opportunities to apply language in common situations helps motivate students and build their learning confidence. Through a diverse range of multimedia activities and exercises, students are introduced to vocabulary themes, grammar concepts and sentence structure. They participate in simple conversations and respond to basic conversational prompts. Students are actively engaged in their own learning throughout the course. Introduction to Spanish- speaking countries, as well as history, food, and literature, heightens cultural awareness and appreciation of the Hispanic world. 

 


Miscellaneous

Elective Course
Course: Dual Enrollment
Grades: 11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: C or higher in core courses
Dual Enrollment provides students with the opportunity to attend a local college or university in order to complete college level work while still enrolled in high school. The following courses may be available: English, Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy, Math, some Science and History. Others may be available, so check with Guidance for additional options. 
 

Elective Course
Course: Cooperative Education
Grades: 10(with special permission),11,12
Credits: 1.0
Prerequisite: C or higher in core courses
This full year is an elective program open to juniors and seniors. Co-op provides goal-oriented occupational education to students electing this program through on-the-job training. Successfully completing the Cooperative Work Experience will provide the student with a better understanding of the world of work as well as occupational training. Goals of the course will include:

     ·  Enhancing the co-op student’s educational experience with real-world career related work experience.

     ·  Allow the co-op student to develop skills and knowledge applicable to an identified career field.

     ·  Allow the co-op student to explore, through on-the-job experience, the career options related to their academic work, and to verify their career choice.

     · Increase the co-op student’s maturity level by exposure to the profession work environment.

     · Establish credentials for the co-op student to enhance their opportunities after graduation for employment or admission to college. 


Elective Course
Course: Study Skills
Grades: 9, 10, 11,12
Credits: 0.5 or 1.0
Prerequisite: None
To support students who are included for academic subject areas. This course will emphasize support in the included area through individualized instruction, study, and organizational skills along with other specially designed instructional strategies.